Thursday, December 12, 2019
Why and When Did Nebuchadnezzar Regain His Reason?
The story of King Nebuchadnezzar's madness is well-known to Bible readers. In Daniel 4, we hear of the king's overweening pride and his humbling at the hands of God, as he loses his faculties and lives like an animal. His sentence is that he shall live like this "until seven times shall pass." Whatever be the exact meaning of "seven times" (seven seasons?), it must refer to a definite period of time.
What happens next? According to Dan 4:31 (English 4:34), "When that period was over, I, Nebuchadnezzar, lifted my eyes to heaven, and my reason returned to me. I blessed the Most High, and praised and honored the one who lives forever." This passage seems to clearly state that, first, the king lifted his eyes, then his reason returned, and then he blessed God.
However, I have my doubts. For one thing, why did the still insane king raise his eyes? It seems most reasonable that he would lift his eyes to heaven as he prepares to bless and praise the Most High. But in that case, his reason must already have returned to him. Is this not contrary to the wording of the verse?
It should be noted that the verbal conjugation of "returned" (יתוב) is different than that of "lifted" (נטלת) and "blessed" (ברכת). Although the prefix-conjugation normally has a future-modal meaning in Biblical Aramaic, sometimes it is used in stories to give background information on the narrated events. In this case, we might capture this nuance by translating as follows: "I lifted my eyes to heaven — for my reason returned to me — and I blessed the Most High."
Why did Nebuchadnezzar's reason return? It was not because he realized his sin and praised God, as is sometimes stated, but simply because his time of punishment was over, as the text clearly says. His term of humiliation ("seven times") having passed, his reason returned to him, and the now humbled king gave praise to God.